Marriage (also called matrimony or wedlock) is a social union or legal contract between people called spouses that establishes rights and obligations between the spouses, between the spouses and their children, and between the spouses and their in-laws. The definition of marriage varies according to different cultures, but it is usually an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged. When defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. In many cultures, marriage is formalized via a wedding ceremony. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite sex couples or two persons of opposite gender in the gender binary, and some of these allow polygynous marriage. Since 2000, several countries and some other jurisdictions have legalized same-sex marriage. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity.
People marry for many reasons, including: legal, social, libidinal, emotional, financial, spiritual, and religious. Marriages can be performed in a secular civil ceremony or in a religious setting. The act of marriage usually creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved. Some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through divorce or annulment. Polygamous marriages may also occur in spite of national laws.
Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community or peers. It is often viewed as a contract. Civil marriage is the legal concept of marriage as a governmental institution irrespective of religious affiliation, in accordance with marriage laws of the jurisdiction. Forced marriages are illegal in some jurisdictions.
- 1 Definitions
- 2 Etymology
- 3 History of marriage
- 4 Same-sex marriage
- 5 Group marriage
- 6 Selection of a partner
- 7 Marriage ceremony
- 8 Cohabitation
- 9 Sex and procreation
- 10 Marriage law
- 11 Marriage and religion
- 12 Financial considerations
- 13 Termination
- 14 Temporary marriages
- 15 Post-marital residence
- 16 Contemporary views on marriage
- 17 Power and gender roles
- 18 References
- 19 External links
Affinity (law)From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaIn law and in cultural anthropology, affinity, as distinguished from consanguinity, is kinship by marriage. It is the relation which each party to a marriage bears to the kindred of the other. In English, affinity is usually signified by adding "-in-law" to the degree of kinship. In addition to kinship by marriage, "affinity" can sometimes also include kinship by adoption.
A prenuptial agreement, antenuptial agreement, or premarital agreement, commonly abbreviated to prenup or prenupt, is a contract entered into prior to marriage, civil union or any other agreement prior to the main agreement by the people intending to marry or contract with each other. The content of a prenuptial agreement can vary widely, but commonly includes provisions for division of property and spousal support in the event of divorce or breakup of marriage. They may also include terms for the forfeiture of assets as a result of divorce on the grounds of adultery; further conditions of guardianship may be included as well.
In some countries, including the Netherlands, the prenuptial agreement not only provides for the event of a divorce, but also to protect some property during the marriage, for instance in case of a bankruptcy.
Many countries, including Canada, France, Italy, and Germany, have matrimonial regimes, in addition to, or some cases, in lieu of prenuptial agreements.
Postnuptial agreements are similar to prenuptial agreements, except that they are entered into after a couple is married.
The Buddhist view of marriage considers marriage a secular affair and as such, it is not considered a sacrament. Buddhists are expected to follow the civil laws regarding marriage laid out by their respective governments.
While the ceremony itself is civil, many Buddhists obtain the blessing from monks at the local temple after the marriage is completed.
The Dalai Lama has spoken of the merits of marriage.
Too many people in the West have given up on marriage. They don't understand that it is about developing a mutual admiration of someone, a deep respect and trust and awareness of another human's needs...The new easy-come, easy-go relationships give us more freedom -- but less contentment.
Gautama Buddha never spoke against marriage but instead pointed out some of the difficulties of marriage. He is quoted in the Parabhava Sutta as saying
Not to be contented with one's own wife, and to be seen with harlots and the wives of others -- this is a cause of one's downfall. Being past one's youth, to take a young wife and to be unable to sleep for jealousy of her -- this is a cause of one's downfall.
The Digha Nikaya 31 (Sigalovada Sutta) describes the respect that one is expected to give to one's spouse.
Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, titles, debts, rights and obligations upon the death of an individual. It represents also to pass a characteristic, genetically. It has long played an important role in human societies. The rules of inheritance differ between societies and have changed over time.
- 1 Terminology
- 2 History
- 3 Inheritance inequality
- 4 Inheritance and race
- 5 Inheritance and social stratification
- 6 Sociological and economic effects of inheritance inequality
- 7 Taxation
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
TerminologyIn law, an heir is a person who is entitled to receive a share of the decedent's (the person who died) property, subject to the rules of inheritance in the jurisdiction where the decedent died or owned property at the time of death. In politics members of ruling noble houses may be heirs of a living person, called heirs apparent. In law, however, a person does not become an heir before the death of the decedent, since the exact identity of the persons entitled to inherit is determined only then. There is a further concept of jointly inheriting, pending renunciation by all but one, which is called coparceny.
In modern law, the terms inheritance and heir refer exclusively to the succession of property from a deceased descendent intestate. Future recipients of property through a will are termed beneficiaries, devisees, or legatees.